Northumbria University Centre for Forensic Science

Year: 2010

Computer-aided forensic facial comparison

M.P. Evison & R.W. Vorder Bruegge (Eds.) “Computer-aided forensic facial comparison”. New York, Taylor and Francis. (2010).

Tags: , Martin Evison

Key parameters of face shape variation in 3D in a large sample

M.P. Evison, I.L. Dryden, N.R.J. Fieller, X.G.D. Mallett, L. Morecroft, D. Schofield & R.W. Vorder Bruegge. Journal of Forensic Sciences, 55(1), pp. 159-162. (2010).

Abstract

Improvement of methods for evidential facial comparison for the Courts relies on the collection of large databases of facial images that permit the analysis of face shape variation and the development of statistical tools. In this paper, we present a short description and key findings of an anthropometric study of face shape variation in three-dimensions. We used Statistical Shape Analysis to investigate a large database sample (n = 1968), classified by age and gender. We found that size, shape of the bilateral features and midline contributed successively to overall variation. Face size is associated with age. Sexual dimorphism is evident in size and shape, and shows patterns that affect male and female subjects differently. We anticipate this approach will lend itself to the development of methods for analysis of variation within subject groups and the establishment of the relative uniqueness or abundance of facial measurements within them.

Tags: , Martin Evison

An exploration of sample representativeness in anthropometric facial comparison

X.G.D. Mallett, I.L. Dryden & M.P. Evison. Journal of Forensic Sciences, 55(4), pp. 1025-1031. (2010).

Abstract

Faces are assumed to be unique, but their use in court has remained problematic as no method of comparison with known error rates has been accepted by the scientific community. Rather than relying on the assumed uniqueness of facial features, previous research has been directed at estimations of face shape frequency. Here, the influence of age, sex, and ancestry on variation was investigated. Statistical shape analysis was used to examine the necessity for sub-divisions in forensic comparisons, using a large sample of facial images on which 30 anthropometric landmark points had been placed in 3D. Results showed a clear pattern of separation of the sexes in all age groups, and in different age groups in men. It was concluded that sub-division of databases by sex will be necessary in forensic comparisons. Sub-division by age may be necessary in men (although not necessarily in women), and may be necessary by ancestry.

Tags: , Martin Evison

The synthesis of, and characterization of the dynamic processes occurring in Pd(II) chelate complexes of 2-pyridyldiphenylphosphine

J. Liu, C. Jacob, K.J. Sheridan, F. Al-Mosule, B.T. Heaton, J.A. Iggo, M. Matthews, J. Pelletier, R. Whyman, J.F. Bickley & A. Steiner (2010). Dalton Transactions, 39, 7921-7935

Abstract

Pd(II) complexes in which 2-pyridyldiphenylphosphine (Ph2Ppy) chelates the Pd(II) centre have been prepared and characterized by multinuclear NMR spectroscopy and by X-ray crystallographic analysis. trans-[Pd(κ1-Ph2Ppy)2Cl2] is transformed into [Pd(κ2-Ph2Ppy)(κ1-Ph2Ppy)Cl]Cl by the addition of a few drops of methanol to dichloromethane solutions, and into [Pd(κ2-Ph2Ppy)(κ1-Ph2Ppy)Cl]X by addition of AgX or TlX, (X = BF4, CF3SO3 or MeSO3). [Pd(κ1-Ph2Ppy)2(p-benzoquinone)] can be transformed into [Pd(κ2-Ph2Ppy)(κ1-Ph2Ppy)(MeSO3)][MeSO3] by the addition of two equivalents of MeSO3H. Addition of further MeSO3H affords [Pd(κ2-Ph2Ppy)(κ1-Ph2PpyH)(MeSO3)][MeSO3]2. Addition of two equivalents of CF3SO3H, MeSO3H or CF3CO2H and two equivalents of Ph2Ppy to [Pd(OAc)2] in CH2Cl2 or CH2Cl2–MeOH affords [Pd(κ2-Ph2Ppy)(κ1-Ph2Ppy)X]X, (X = CF3SO3, MeSO3 or CF3CO2), however addition of two equivalents of HBF4·Et2O affords a different complex, tentatively formulated as [Pd(κ2-Ph2Ppy)2]X2. Addition of excess acid results in the clean formation of [Pd(κ2-Ph2Ppy)(κ1-Ph2PpyH)(X)]X2. In methanol, addition of MeSO3H and three equivalents of Ph2Ppy to [Pd(OAc)2] affords [Pd(κ2-Ph2Ppy)(κ1-Ph2Ppy)2][MeSO3]2 as the principal Pd-phosphine complex. The fluxional processes occuring in these complexes and in [Pd (κ1-Ph2Ppy)3Cl]X, (X = Cl, OTf) and the potential for hemilability of the Ph2Ppy ligand has been investigated by variable-temperature NMR. The activation entropy and enthalpy for the regiospecific fluxional processes occuring in [Pd(κ2-Ph2Ppy)(κ1-Ph2Ppy)2][MeSO3]2 have been determined and are in the range −10 to −30 J mol−1 K−1 and ca. 30 kJ mol−1 respectively, consistent with associative pathways being followed. The observed regioselectivities of the exchanges are attributed to the constraints imposed by microscopic reversibility and the small bite angle of the Ph2Ppy ligand. X-Ray crystal structure determinations of trans-[Pd(κ1-Ph2Ppy)2Cl2], [Pd(κ2-Ph2Ppy)(κ1-Ph2Ppy)Cl][BF4], [Pd(κ1-Ph2Ppy)2(p-benzoquinone)], trans-[Pd(κ1-Ph2PpyH)2Cl2][MeSO3]2, and [Pd(κ1-Ph2Ppy)3Cl](Cl) are reported. In [Pd(κ2-Ph2Ppy)(κ1-Ph2Ppy)Cl][BF4] a donor–acceptor interaction is seen between the pyridyl-N of the monodentate Ph2Ppy ligand and the phosphorus of the chelating Ph2Ppy resulting in a trigonal bipyramidal geometry at this phosphorus.

Tags: , Kelly Sheridan

DNA Databases and the Forensic Imaginary

R. Williams. “DNA Databases and the Forensic Imaginary”, in R. Hindmarsh & B. Prainsack (Eds) Governing the Challenges of DNA Profiling & Databasing, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. (2010).

Tags: , Robin Williams

The Future of Forensic Bioinformation

C. McCartney, R. Williams & T. Wilson. The Nuffield Council. London. (2010)

Tags: , Robin Williams

Helping with Inquiries or Helping with Profits? The Trials and Tribulations of a Technology of Forensic Reasoning

C. Lawless & R. Williams. Social Studies of Science, 40(5), pp. 731–755. (2010)

Abstract

The commercialization of forensic scientific provision in the UK over the last two decades has had a major role in shaping a changing epistemic identity for forensic scientists working within this jurisdiction. Efforts to match the presumed epistemological standards of the ‘pure’ sciences have been brought together with concerns about value for money in a new approach to the interpretation of evidence, an activity that lies at the heart of criminal investigative practice. A study of the Case Assessment and Interpretation method developed by members of the UK Forensic Science Service is used to show how a technical innovation in the delivery of forensic science services to the police has instantiated these two recent social processes.

Tags: , Robin Williams

The Technology Strategy Board

M. Wienroth. “The Technology Strategy Board”, in: D.H. Guston (Ed), Encyclopaedia of Nanoscience and Society, Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE. (2010).

Tags: , Matthias Wienroth

The Scale of Nanotechnology

M. Wienroth. “The Scale of Nanotechnology”, in: D.H. Guston (Ed), Encyclopedia of Nanoscience and Society, Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE. (2010).

Tags: , Matthias Wienroth

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